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 Remember Hiroshima!
Remember Hiroshima! - Remember Nagasaki!

Was it Necessary?
A-Bombing Comment
Atomic Bomb: Decision

Hiroshima: Was it Necessary?
Hiroshima A-bombing Web Site
Includes a documented article suggesting the atomic bombing of Japan was probably not necessary to win WWII.
Ask them
Survivors of Hiroshima
Personal Account
of Exposure to A-bomb

First-person account of the events surrounding the bombing of Hiroshima on 06 August 1945.
Voice of Hibakusha
Hiroko's Hiroshima Travel Guide
The City of Hiroshima
Hiroshima Archive
Hiroshima Calling
Hiroshima Interpreters
for Peace (HIP)

Hiroshima Live Project
Hiroshima Project
Infinity City
Atomic Area of Nagasaki, Japan
Nagasaki Protest
against Nuclear Testing

Nagasaki Memories

The Exploratorium in San Francisco has a memorial to the use of the A-bomb which includes photos, by Japanese photographer Yosuke Yamahata, taken literally hours after the detonation over Nagasaki. This collection of images, along with a discussion page concerning the effect the use of such weapons has had on the global psyche, make this site a powerful reminder of the legacy of war.

Remembering Nagasaki
By LANCE GAY, August 2, 2005
Documents emerging from once-closed Soviet archives are forcing historians to rewrite the history of the last days of World War II and reassess the impact of the Hiroshima bomb on Japan's surrender.
Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, a professor of history at the University of California-Santa Barbara, said the evidence shows that it wasn't so much the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki that forced the Japanese to capitulate in August 1945, but the Soviet invasion of Manchuria and impending threat of Soviet occupation of the Japanese mainland.
"I think the Soviet presence was crucial," said Hasegawa, author of "Racing the Enemy: Stalin, Truman and the Surrender of Japan."
Hasegawa, whose specialty is Russian history, said histories for the last half-century have treated the Soviet entry into the war against Japan on Aug. 8 as a sideshow. U.S. textbooks today emphasize the use of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima on Aug. 6 and the bombing of Nagasaki on Aug. 9 as the decisive action forcing the Japanese to surrender by Aug. 14.
But Hasegawa said the bombing of Hiroshima didn't deliver a knockout punch, and the bombing of Nagasaki got surprisingly little notice at the highest levels of the Japanese government, which already was trying to find a way to end the war.
"Of course it had an impact, but it was not that decisive," said Hasegawa, who studied imperial Japanese war records in Tokyo as well as Soviet archives. "What it did was to inject urgency into Japanese diplomatic efforts to end the war."
Western historians first obtained once-closed Soviet archives during the period of perestroika in the 1990s, when Russian reformers made Stalin's papers available for the first time. Russian President Vladimir Putin has since closed many of the archives to Western researchers, but Russian historians recently were allowed again to see the papers.
Hasegawa said he was also surprised to find that Japanese historians have done little work in Tokyo's archives exploring the activities of Emperor Hirohito in the last days of the war - a shortcoming he attributes to Japanese sensitivities about the role of the emperor in World War II.
Hasegawa said many Japanese leaders wanted to end the war in July, but Hirohito's hopes of gaining a mediated settlement that would leave him in power delayed the surrender for a month.
Doug Long, a retired computer programmer who runs a Web site on the Hiroshima bomb from his home in Rio Rancho, N.M., said Hasegawa's study has provided fresh insights into the last days of World War II and shows how the Soviet archives are broadening historical understanding of the chaotic days after the atomic bomb was dropped on Japan.

In this picture released by the US Army, a mushroom cloud billowed, about one hour after the atomic bomb was detonated above Hiroshima, Japan, on Aug. 6, 1945. About 140,000 are believed to have died in the blast.
(US Army Photo Via Hiroshima Peace Museum Memorial)
Long said the war blinded Japanese leaders to the reality of their military weakness. Even when Tokyo received intelligence reports of Soviet troops massing on the borders of Manchuria to invade, Japanese leaders still held out hope that Moscow would mediate a settlement.
Long said the Soviet records are "confirmation of what we knew or surmised" and are key to filling gaps for historians trying to put together the story of how the war ended.
University of Pittsburgh historian Donald Goldstein, author of several books on the war in the Pacific, agreed that the Soviet documents provide "a new slant" on Stalin's involvement that had been withheld from the public for decades.
Goldstein said it's clear that Japan was fatally crippled by the summer of 1945. Japanese diplomats began trying to find a way to bring the war to an end by April, looking for a deal that would keep the country's emperor system intact. By the summer, Japanese leaders knew the allies intended to bring the Nazis to trial for war crimes and feared the same would happen to them and Hirohito.
"They were trying to get the best deal, but the word came back, no deal," Goldstein said.
Truman monitored the Japanese diplomatic efforts through electronic intercepts of diplomatic codes, which provided the texts of messages Japan's foreign minister, Shigenori Togo, sent to the Japanese ambassador in Moscow seeking Stalin's help in ending the war. Stalin describes in some of the Soviet documents how he "lulled the Japanese to sleep" while secretly preparing for war.
By mid-1945, Truman was increasingly alarmed about Soviet occupation of Europe and concerned that Soviet involvement in Asia could result in a divided Japan. The Soviet archives confirm that Truman had some justification for these concerns and detail Stalin's maneuvering that continued the Soviet war against Japan for two weeks after Japan's Aug. 14 surrender. While denying to American diplomats that he was involved in the continued fighting, the Soviet records show that Stalin ordered the Red Army to seize Manchuria and the Japanese islands.
Hasegawa said Soviet archives show that Stalin considered even invading Japan's northern island of Hokkaido.
"Stalin's role was very crucial in the drama of ending the war," he said. "This was totally in the dark, we didn't know it."
(Contact Lance Gay at GayL(at)
Distributed by Scripps Howard News Service

New research on Hiroshima, Nagasaki
Truman was a war criminal

By John Catalinotto
Published by Workers World, Aug 5, 2005
Why was Harry Truman's decision to use atomic weapons against Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, 60 years ago, like George Bush's decision to invade Iraq in 2003? They were both war crimes, of course.
And they were both based on a Big Lie.
In Bush's case the lie was the now-discredited claim that the U.S. had to invade Iraq to stop the use of "weapons of mass destruction." In Truman's case, it was that the U.S. had to drop A-bombs to force the Japanese to surrender—or this would require a land invasion that would cost hundreds of thousands of U.S. casualties.

With the 60th anniversary of the bombings coming up, it is more than likely that the big lie of 1945 will be repeated ad nauseam by politicians, corporate media and bought-off historians of U.S. academia. There are, however, two historians who are marshaling old and new arguments and facts to expose this lie.
Hiroshima reinterpreted:
Interview with professors
Mark Selden and Peter Kuznick

 Mark Selden and Peter Kuznick

Last edited: 25-07-2005
To mark the 60th anniversary of the dropping of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the  Weapons of Mass Destruction Awareness Programme, Greenpeace, Medact, the Atomic Mirror Project and Scientists for Global Responsibility invited to the UK  two leading US historians to discuss the validity of the decision to drop the atomic bomb in 1945, and the dangers of new nuclear policies in the 21st century.
Watch their interviews here:
 Watch video See part 1 now (4.5 MBytes)     Watch video See part 2 now (4.5 MBytes)
They are  Peter Kuznick, director of the Nuclear Studies Institute at American University in Washington, D.C., and  Mark Selden, from Cornell University in Ithaca, N.Y. Kuznick and Selden presented their latest findings at a press conference July 21 organized by Greenpeace in London. The Greenpeace site has a video presentation by the two historians.
Their findings support an argument made earlier: that the main reason the U.S. used nuclear weapons on Japan was to get a jump start on the war against the Soviet Union. Truman used the bomb in 1945 so the U.S. could threaten to use it against Korea, Vietnam and in many other battles. These new findings reveal that the U.S. officials making the decisions themselves knew and admitted their Big Lie was a lie.
The two historians studied the diplomatic archives of the U.S., Japan and the USSR. They found that on Aug. 3, 1945, three days before Hiroshima, Truman agreed at a meeting that Japan was “looking for peace.” All the U.S. senior generals and admirals, including Gen. Dwight Eisenhower, Gen. Douglas MacArthur and Admiral William Leahy, told him it was unnecessary to use the A-bomb to defeat Japan. “Impressing Russia was more important than ending the war,” Selden says.
Kuznick and Selden also show that the Japanese authorities were anxious to avoid a Soviet invasion of the Japanese main islands. The USSR officially entered the Pacific war on Aug. 9, 1945, sweeping through Japanese-occupied China and half of Korea.
At the press conference, Kuznick and Selden didn’t discuss in detail why the Japanese imperialists feared a Soviet occupation more than one by the U.S., when the U.S. posture was so hostile to Japan. The Japanese imperialists’ fear can only be explained by the socialist underpinnings of the USSR, which threatened a change in property relations wherever the Red Army liberated territory. This happened, for example, in Eastern Europe and East Germany.
On Aug. 15, 1945, Truman ordered a survey of the war events. Published over a year later, it stated: “Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts, and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Sur vey’s opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945, Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated.” Nov. 1 was the date the U.S. had planned the invasion.
‘A crime against humanity’
In Hiroshima, an estimated 80,000 people were killed in a split second on Aug. 6. Some 13 square kilometers of the city were obliterated. By December, at least another 70,000 people had died from radiation and injuries. Three days later, on Aug. 9, the U.S. dropped an A-bomb on Nagasaki, resulting in the deaths of at least 70,000 people before the year was out. About 10 percent of the casualties were Koreans forced to work in Japan at the time.
Kuznick and Selden put most of the blame on Truman. “He knew he was begin ning the process of annihilation of the species,” says Kuznick, “It was not just a war crime; it was a crime against humanity.”
A revealing comment regarding U.S. war crimes came from John Bolton, recently appointed U.S. ambassador to the United Nations. Bolton was arguing in 1998 against the International Criminal Court. “Much of the media attention to the American negotiating position on the ICC concentrated on the risks perceived by the Pentagon to American peacekeepers stationed around the world,” wrote Bolton. ... “[O]ur real concern should be for the president and his top advisers.”
Bolton continued: “The definition of ‘war crimes’ includes, for example: ‘intentionally directing attacks against the civilian population as such or against individual civilians not taking direct part in hostilities.’”
Bolton wrote that under the ICC rules, U.S. leaders could have been found guilty of a war crime for dropping atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and for all the aerial bombardments of German and Japanese civilian areas.
The A-bombs were not the only crimes. U.S. nighttime raids using conventional bombs against residential areas of Tokyo, Osaka and other industrial cities caused hundreds of thousands of Japanese civilian deaths, and Dresden, Germany, was obliterated in early 1945, killing mainly refugees. But Truman’s decision opened the door to massive use of these new terror bombs.
Now the Bush administration, fresh from being caught in a series of lies justifying aggression against Iraq, plans to increase the Pentagon’s reliance on a new generation of nuclear weapons. On the 60th anniversary of Hiroshima, it is past time to organize to prevent the new crimes U.S. imperialism has in its plans.
This article is copyright under a Creative Commons License.
Workers World, 55 W. 17 St., NY, NY 10011


Letters Reveal Einstein Torn, Defensive Over Atomic Bombings Of Japan

"The only consolation, it seems to me, in the development of nuclear bombs is that this time the deterrent effect will prevail and the development of international security will accelerate," Einstein wrote in another letter.

Tokyo (AFP) Jul 04, 2005 -- Previously unpublished letters by Albert Einstein to a Japanese pen pal show the physicist to be defensive over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki which became possible through his genius.
The widow of Seiei Shinohara, a philosopher and German-Japanese translator who corresponded with Einstein in the last years of the scientist's life, has chosen to go public with the letters on the 60th anniversary of the world's only nuclear attacks.
Einstein's opposition to nuclear warfare has already been documented, but his letters to Shinohara also show him defending himself on a personal level and trying to reconcile his pacifism.
The correspondence began in 1953 when Shinohara sent a letter to Einstein criticizing the physicist over his role in developing nuclear weapons.
Einstein responded by hand on the back of the typed letter, beginning his rebuttal without bothering to offer greetings.
"I have always condemned the use of the atomic bomb against Japan but I could not do anything at all to prevent that fateful decision," Einstein wrote in German to Shinohara in a letter dated June 23, 1953.
This year marks the centennial of Einstein's theory of relativity. He argued that distance and time are not absolute, leading to his most famous formula, E=mc2, essential for the development of the atomic bombs dropped on Japan by the United States.
The Hiroshima bombing killed around 140,000 people - almost half the city population of the time - immediately or in the months afterward from radiation injuries or horrific burns.
More than 70,000 more people died three days later in the bombing of Nagasaki. After six days Emperor Hirohito went on the radio for the first time to announce the surrender of Japan, which since the war has campaigned to abolish nuclear weapons.
"The only consolation, it seems to me, in the development of nuclear bombs is that this time the deterrent effect will prevail and the development of international security will accelerate," Einstein wrote in another letter.
But Einstein, whose Jewish origins led him to flee Germany in 1933 for the United States after Adolf Hitler came to power, also said that war was sometimes acceptable.
"I didn't write that I was an absolute pacifist but that I have always been a convinced pacifist. That means there are circumstances in which in my opinion it is necessary to use force," he wrote.
"Such a case would be when I face an opponent whose unconditional aim is to destroy me and my people," he said. "Therefore the use of force against Nazi Germany was in my opinion justified and necessary."
Shinohara, who studied philosophy in Germany before returning to Tokyo in 1947, died of a stroke in 2001 at age 89. His letters has since been kept in private by his widow, Nobuko Shinohara.
The correspondence ended in July 1954, a year before Einstein died, dashing Shinohara's dream to meet the physicist face to face.
"My husband first sent the letter with anger and I guess Dr. Einstein replied with annoyance," said Shinohara, 80.
"But later Dr. Einstein and my husband formed a friendship through exchanging letters," she told AFP.
She noted that 2005 was designated as "Einstein Year" to mark the 100th anniversary of three of the physicist's four papers that changed the way we view the universe.
"I decided to look for a suitable museum to display the letters in public because I reached a conclusion that it's good for a lot of people to have a chance of seeing them directly," Shinohara said.
"I hope to donate the letters soon because this year is a remarkable year - the 60th anniversary of the atomic bombs and the end of World War II," she said.
"I think his letters are a great message from Dr. Einstein to everybody in modern times as we are still struggling to reduce nuclear weapons."
The couple sent a Japanese doll and traditional pictures to Einstein while receiving in return his black-and-white photogragh with his autograph.
"My husband repeatedly told me he really missed Dr. Einstein after his death," Shinohara said. "He told me there were a lot of other things to discuss with Dr. Einstein."
Several museums have already made requests seeking the letters for their collections, according to Yutaka Sakuma, a lawyer handling the papers.
All rights reserved.
© 2005 Agence France-Presse.
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Japanese Atomic Bombs

Sun Tzu Organization claims "the Japanese were working on their own atomic bombs when Hiroshima and Nagasaki were attacked. They even exploded a test bomb in a Korean harbor." Sun Tzu also says that Sony founder Akio Morita "knew what hit Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From his autobiography, Made in Japan, Morita's knowledge of the type of weapons dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki is demonstrated in direct quotes from Morita in his book." Further evidence came from A Nazi submarine (Unterseeboot U-234) "captured en route to Japan with a cargo of uranium oxide, key ingredient for atomic bombs."
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Frontline: Loose Nukes "On the trail of Eduard Baranov"
Frontline's investigation: Three of the most alarming incidents of nuclear material diversion - in Prague, Munich, and Landshut (1994) - are linked to the same Russian middleman.

Frontline: Loose Nukes Transcript
[This transcript is provided as a service of Journal Graphics. The WGBH Educational Foundation is not responsible for any errors or mischaracterizations in this transcript. JES] FRONTLINE Show #1504 Air Date: November 19, 1996 Loose Nukes

Frontline: Russia's Nuclear Complex
This map shows some of 100 locations of known nuclear material across Russia, and gives details on the kind of nuclear material (amounting in total to an estimated 1000+ metric tons of highly enriched uranium and over100 metric tons of bomb grade plutonium) and its safety status.

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Chronology of Nuclear Smuggling Incidents
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SIPRI (Projects) SAC, London, 18 Dec. 1984

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