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Japanese-Americans Internment
in Concentration Camps During WWII

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"(The Japanese) whose skull pattern being less developed than that of the Caucasians, might be responsible for their aggressive behavior."
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, (1942)


(Geoffrey S. Smith, "Racial Nativism and Origins of Japanese American Relocation" in: Ed. by Roger Daniels, Sandra Taylor, and Harry Kitano; Japanese Americans, from Relocation to Redress; University of Utah Press; Salt Lake City, Utah; 1986; 79-85.)
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The Global Spy News Portal
WWII Propaganda: The Influence of RacismWWII Propaganda: The Influence of Racism
A Psychohistorical Analysis
of the Japanese American Internment

By Alison Dundes Renteln, Human Rights Quarterly 17.4 (1995) 618-648
Interned Minds: Issues of Historical Interpretation in Michelle Malkin's In Defense of Internment
by R. Paul Lege, PhD Candidate, University of Phoenix
American Justice on Trial

By Geoff Lillich, glillich@vcnet.com, Oxnard Union High School District

"How could such a tragedy have occurred
in a democratic society that prides itself
on individual rights and freedoms"

Milton Eisenhower, Director of the War Relocation Board

On February 19, 1942, at the height of U.S. involvement in World War II, President Roosevelt authorized military leaders within the War Department to place all Japanese Americans residing on the West Coast in detention camps. The following months witnessed the relocation of some 120,000 Japanese Americans, of whom 77,000 were official American citizens. Although the order was employed only against Japanese Americans, it actually empowered the War Department to evacuate and imprison any American citizen without the time-honored right to a fair trial. These two factors - the harsh treatment of Japanese Americans (many of whom were fourth-generation citizens), and the power of the Army to imprison without trial any American citizen - constituted a fundamental challenge to the tradition of civil liberties long viewed as fundamental to America's democratic system. For this reason, the story of Japanese American internment is well worth our attention.
The decision to relocate Japanese Americans raises many compelling questions about the workings of American justice during crisis periods such as World War II. The matter becomes particularly intriguing when considered in light of the fact that, through the entire war, no Japanese American citizen was ever convicted of spying for Japan. Nobody can deny the hardships and humiliations suffered by Japanese Americans as a result of the government's extreme actions; however, a complete explanation of events surrounding this controversial episode must also account for the wartime context in which they occurred. America's war against Japan began with the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, and was still being waged in full force when Roosevelt made his fateful decision regarding Japanese Americans in February of 1942. Roosevelt's top priority was winning the war, a view that was shared by an overwhelming majority of Americans. We must remember that the U.S. citizenry, along with those of other allied countries, had every reason to be fearful of Japan because of its military sucesses against us and its alliance with Germany and the other axis powers. This concern prompted Roosevelt to defer to military leaders on an issue which normally would have been decided within the Justice Department. Indeed, the issue of Japanese American internment gave rise to an intense debate that pitted top military men against leaders of the Justice Department who voiced their opposition to the relocation plan in strong terms.

Restricted and Prohibited Military Zones in the U.S. (Map)
Assembly, Relocation and Internment Centers in the U.S. (Map)
Japanese American Internment
Life in Relocation Camps
War Relocation Authority Camps in Arizona, 1942-1946
Japanese Americans in World War II
442nd Go for Broke

American Minorities - Final Exam
Plywood Palace California Polytechnic State University,
Social Sciences Department,
Soc 3l6 American Minorities
Dr.Barbara Mori,

Study Questions for the Final Exam
"(5) The internment of Japanese-Americans during WWII is said to be a constitutional crisis. What aspects of the constitution are threatened?
Discuss the internment and the Korematsu, Hirabayashi and Yasui cases in terms of the protections of the constitution and the influence of racism."

Nice photos for the future
The System of Arrest and Internment of Civilians in World War One
Legal documents relating to Civilian Internment
Executive Order 9066

The attack of Pearl Harbor opened the flood gates for an attack on Japanese living in America. For years, the Japanese in America had been the target of discrimination. The 1913 Alien Land Law was designed to prevent Japanese from owning land, . . .

Text of Executive Order No. 9066
Executive Order 9066 & the Residents of S.C. Co.
Relocation of Japanese-Americans
A computer documentary on the Japanese American internment prison. Contains pictures and discourse about the injustices that occurred there.
War Relocation Authority Camps of Arizona
University of Arizona library presents a photo exhibit on life in Japanese American internment camps. Includes maps and links to other guides.
Executive Order No. 9066
Executive Order No. 9066 issued by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, which ordered the creation of internment camps and the relocation of Japanese Americans and Japanese immigrants.
Japanese American Relocation Digital Archive (JARDA)
E.O. 9066 - World War II Internment in the U.S.
E.O. 9066 Bibliography and References
On Internment of Japanese enemy aliens
and Japanese-Americans during WW II

Proclamation 4417,
Confirming the Termination of the Executive Order

The Plight of Japanese Americans During World War II
by Glendale H. Zell II
Authorizing Japanese-American Internment During World War II
Japanese American Internment Information Site
This site presents information on pre-World War II and post-World War II conditions, the politics of internment, the 100th'442nd soldiers, and books on Internment.
Maps of Japanese American Internment Camps
Maps and diagrams of the Japanese American Internment Camps in the United States.
Chronology of the Japanese American Internment
A chronology of the internment of Japanese Americans from 1941-1989.

Asian-Americans on the Web
Self-Study Unique to an Asian American
Manzanar - America's Concentration Camp
Manzanar Project
Manzanar National Historic Site

From 1942-1945, in the frenzy and fear of WWII, Manzanar was used as an internment camp for over 10,000 Japanese Americans from Southern California. Water was once again made available and this desert area bloomed. The internees raised produce and brought the fruit trees back to life. They fed the people in their camp and shipped the excess to other camps in the Western United States.
Today little remains of the camp other than two sentry posts, the camp auditorium, and the camp cemetery. Because of its historic value in telling the history of WWII, Congress designated Manzanar a National Historic Site - a Blue Star Highway Marker was put in place in 1994. Local, state and federal agencies continue to work on a long-range protection and visitor use plan. In addition, the Eastern California Museum, in Independence, has exhibits and research materials on the relocation camp.

Once a year, on the last Saturday in April, a delegation of Japanese Americans and others make a pilgrimage to Manzanar. A small ceremony is held to pay tribute to the internees and Japanese American veterans who fought in WWII.

Takei commemorates WWII internment

George Takei
George Takei, best known by fans as the actor who played Mr. Sulu in Star Trek, recently undertook yet another epic journey. This time it was to the World War II internment camp where he spent three years with his family and thousands of other Japanese Americans who were deemed security risks by the U.S. government.
Takei, now 59, was one of 275 Japanese Americans who undertook a four-day pilgrimage from San Francisco to the Tule Lake Relocation and Segregation Center near the Oregon state border.

442nd Go for Broke
A More Perfect Union:
      Japanese Americans and the United States Constitution
Arthur D. Jacobs and Joseph E. Fallon
      on Internment
Chronology: Suspicion,
      Arrest, and Internment
What are Internment and Relocation?
An ominous aspect of of the "secrets"
      of internment in the United States
Fifth Amendment
Assembly Points for Internment
Born Free and Equal,
      Ansel Adams Photographs
Camp Harmony Newsletter
Exhibit on Japanese-American
      Internment Camps
Fedworld: search for text of Supreme Court Cases
General Information - Graphics.
Hirabayashi v. United States (320 U.S. 81)
Japanese American Exhibit and Access Project
Japanese American Incarceration Facts
Japanese American Internment
The Japanese-American Internment Camps
The Japanese-American Internment
Japanese American Internment Camps
Japanese American Internment in Concentration Camps
Japanese American Internment On-Line Exhibit (1)
Japanese American Internment: Online Exhibit (2)
Japanese American Internment: Santa Clara Valley
Japanese American National Museum:
      Curatorial Department
Japanese American Network
Japanese American World War II Experience
Korematsu v. United States (319 U.S. 432)
The Latin American Connection--World War II Internment
Map Showing the Locations of the Internment Camps
from the University of Arizona. (137 K)
Materials Related to the Japanese American Incarceration

University of Washington Libraries
Manuscripts, Special Collections, University Archives
Materials Related to the Japanese American Incarceration

Yale University Library
Microfilm Collections

International Intergovernmental Organizations

Papers of the U.S. Commission on Wartime Relocation
and Internment of Civilians, Part I,

Numerical File Archive. (Frederick, MD: University Publications of America Inc., 1984)Microfilm, Government Documents and Information Center GUIDE:
Papers of the U.S. Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians.
[GDC Ref. D769.8 A6 L47 1]
        Copyright 1996 by Yale University

Nikkei West: Northern California's
      Japanese American Community Newspaper
San Francisco Museum
Unofficial Nikkei Home Page
AV #84525 - Video Cassette - Unfinished Business:
      The Japanese American Internment Cases
War Relocation Authority Camps in Arizona, 1942-1946
Ethnicity #3 Japanese-Americans

Internment of Japanese-Americans, , WWII
Security Personnel, Jap-Amer Camps, WWII
Military history:
World War II (1939-1945)


Justice honored for dissent in internment case

HARBOR BEACH, Mich. (Associated Press) - Justice Frank Murphy of Michigan was among the dissenters when the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the imprisonment of Japanese Americans during World War II. The State Bar of Michigan dedicated a legal milestone Friday in memory of Murphy's dissent.
The 1944 high court ruling permitted the forced relocation of 112,000 U.S. residents of Japanese ancestry from their homes on the West Coast to government camps. Murphy disagreed that such internment was a military necessity, calling it "utterly revolting."
"Frank was a person who had the courage of his convictions," his sister-in-law, Brigid Murphy, said. "He didn't care how popular or unpopular those convictions were.
Murphy joined Justices Owen Roberts and Robert Jackson in dissenting. Murphy wrote that detaining people of Japanese descent was a "legalization of racism." Individuals "must not be left impoverished of their constitutional rights on a plea of military necessity that has neither substance nor support," he wrote.
The State Bar of Michigan dedicated its 24th Michigan Legal Milestone in honor of Murphy's dissent, placing a bronze plaque at the Frank Murphy Estate in Harbor Beach.
The ceremony was attended by Fred Korematsu, the Californian who challenged the wartime internment all the way to the Supreme Court. (Nov 02, 1996)

See also:
Timeline
Basic Readings
in U.S. Democracy

For further reading: Peter Irons, Justice at War (1983); Morton Grodzins, Americans Betrayed: Politics and the Japanese Evacuations (1949); Commission on Wartime Relocation, Personal Justice Denied (1983).


Japanese American Internment Memorial
Japanese American Internment Memorial Location: East Plaza (located on South 2nd and San Carlos) Robert Peckham Federal Building 280 S. First Street San Jose, CA
Fort Douglas Utah War Prison Barracks Three 1917-1920
Detailed Chronology of Events
      at War Prison Barracks Three
Documents and Newspaper articles
      on Fort Douglas and civilian internment in World War One
Excerpt from "Internment Camps in America, 1917-1920"
      by William B. Glidden from Military Affairs magazine in 1973
Bibliography of Fort Douglas War Prison Barrack Three
      and Alien Enemy Internment in the West 1917-1920
Map of the prison camp
Der Scheinwerfer Camp Newspaper

First Edition February 1919 #1


Camp Harmony Exhibit
      Photographs & Drawings

World War II (1939-1945) WWW Links
SEE ALSO:
IMTFE - International
Military Tribunal
for the Far East