S.C. prof helps open secret U.S. files on Nazis
Charlotte Observer Online, Aug-15-98
Jewish groups reject Swiss banks' $600 million offer
CNN - June 19, 1998
Report: Neutral nations' trade kept Nazi war machine going
CNN - June 2, 1998
Study: Swiss bank stashed gold taken from Nazi camp victims
CNN - May 25, 1998
Documents show Soviets, others knew Swiss had more Nazi gold
CNN - April 3, 1998
Clues to a World War II mystery
U.S. News 06/24/96
It is the last great mystery of World War II: the unfinished, unprecedented search for what may be billions of dollars in cash, gold, property and art hidden and unclaimed by victims of the Holocaust--or plundered by the Nazis and their accomplices before shipping Jews to the death camps. It includes the World Jewish Restitution Organization, which represents Jewish interests in the matter ...
Rob Gowland: Banks Nazi Connections Exposed
Fifty years ago, on February 25, 1946, Russell Nixon, Director of the Division of Investigation of Cartels and External Assets in the US Military Government in Germany, testified before the Kilgore Committee of the US Congress that the United States and Britain were preventing the Soviet Union from participating in the search for Nazi assets in neutral countries.
Soviet participation, declared Nixon, would "lay bare the Fascist or reactionary regimes in countries such as Spain, Portugal, Switzerland, Sweden and Argentina and would reveal all the elements of collaboration of certain interests in the Allied countries with those regimes." . . .
(This article was published in "The Guardian", newspaper of the Socialist Party of Australia in its issue of Wednesday, June 19th, 1996. Contact address: 65 Campbell Street, Surry Hills. Sydney. 2010 Australia. Fax: 612 281 5795. Email: <firstname.lastname@example.org> Subscription rates on request)
Virtual Government in Context
In June, 1949 jurisdiction over the war criminals was handed to High Commissioner John McCloy, a hard-core "anti-Nazi." His attitude underwent a drastic change in closed sessions, however. McCloy's secret Clemency Board reduced the sentences of all but the most intractable SS. Nearly a third were released for "good behavior" at the behest of the General German Staff. Others were granted amnesty by the thousands. A year later, Jim Martin, a Defense Department investigator, traveled to Germany to track down Gerhard Westrick, the CEO of ITT in Germany and already a mover in the formation of the Fourth Reich.
Westrick had fled the Berlin bombing and took refuge in a castle to the south. By post he appealed for help from his Army cronies, who smuggled him to Paris to apprise Colonel Alex Sanders of the condition of ITT's German holdings. Westrick received a token prison sentence and was released. Hermann Abs, one of Hitler's principal financial backers, was employed as a consultant in the British zone for the Deutsche Bank.
The emerging order was merely a reorganization of the old. Anyone who caught on was ignored, or if they went public, were tarred by government officials as "Communists," including Dexter White and Lauchlin Currie of the Treasury Department. White and Currie were investigating financial dealings with Germany throughout the course of the war by Standard Oil, Chase and National City Banks, the Morgan family, ITT, Ford and GM, among others. The careers of both investigators were wiped out by the McCarthy hearings, and they were effectively silenced. Telford Taylor, chief counsel at Nuremberg, saw the proceedings for what they were. He was beside himself that the most powerful Nazis were acquitted on technicalities. "Murder, maiming, enslavement, ravage and plunder are a familiar litany," he wrote in 1970. What was unique about the Nazi conquests, especially in Eastern Europe, he said, "was the enormous scope of the atrocities and the systematic planning and meticulous execution of these hideous enterprises." [ ... ]
(Dance of the Antipodes: The Birth of the Fourth Reich. By Alex Constantine. In September 1944, Sims Carter, assistant chief of the Economic Warfare section of the Justice ...)
Machinations to WW2
[ ... ] The international bankers poured vast sums of money into the German economy. The three largest loans made by the money monopolists went into the development of the three German cartels that aided Hitler and his National Socialists in their rise to power.
As James Martin points out, "these loans for reconstruction became a vehicle for arrangements that did more to promote World War II than to establish peace after World War I" (All Honorable Men, p. 70). Martin was the Chief of the Economic Warfare Section of the Department of Justice investigating the structure of Nazi industry. [ ... ]
(12:04:24 EDT From: RoadsEnd@aol.com To: email@example.com Subject: Re: Machinations to WW2. part 6 )
Red Letter Day Magazine presents Evil Deed of the Month
Though the dealings of the Swiss, Swedes and others were we know during the war a decision was made after the war to overlook these transgressions. Just as many war criminals were protected by western intelligence after the war, so the bankers and industrialists who so ably supported Nazi war effort were given a carte blanche to continue as if nothing had happened.
Trail of Nazi Gold
New documentation on the Swiss banks and controversial steps taken by the U.S. and her allies after World War II will be.
Gold Transfer Articles
In Stockholm on Wednesday, the president of the World Jewish Congress met Sweden's foreign minister on the same issue - gold sent to Sweden by the Nazis during World War II. 28 - In the decades after World War II, rumors swirled through Argentina that German submarines carrying Nazi war criminals and booty landed in Patagonia, Argentina's vast southern wilderness.
Avoid the Government Paper Chase
Fabricators of Nazi Gold
Actually, the term "latest" doesn't really apply, since Operation Condor is actually a trimmed and dubbed rerelease of his 1990 effort, Armor of God II. Elsa (Eva Cobo De Garcia) is the granddaughter of one of the Nazi guards, and may know the secrets required to enter the Nazi vault.
Secret Fabricators of Nazi Gold
In 1945, the Russian Army entered Berlin and a secret team of NKVD commandos captured thirty one million dollars in Nazi gold. Members of this secret elite had the busts shipped to them in Russia and thereby hid their ill gotten wealth in plain sight in the form of patriotic "BUSTS" which were then proudly displayed for all to see.
Paradise Books - Nazi Gold
Nazi Gold is the stunning and shocking expos of the fifty-year conspiracy by Swiss bankers to steal deposits by European Jews and help German Nazis hide the money they looted from Jewish victims of the Holocaust. In 1942, thousands of Jewish refugees fleeing a Nazi roundup of Jews in occupied France crossed the border into Switzerland seeking asylum but were forcibly pushed back
Nazi Gold Finding Aid
On May 7 1997, the Interagency Group on Nazi Assets, issued its report U.S. and Allied Efforts to Recover and Restore Gold and Other Assets Stolen or Hidden by Germany During World War II: Preliminary Study and a finding aid to records at College Park. The title of the finding aid is: Appendix, U.S. and Allied Efforts to Recover and Restore Gold and Other Assets Stolen or Hidden by Germany.
U.S. report on Nazi gold may benefit survivors
Earlier this year, bowing to international pressures from international Jewish groups, led by the World Jewish Congress, the Swiss government established two funds to provide needy Holocaust survivors with millions of dollars. Over the course of the past year, as wartime documents were declassified, Switzerland found itself besieged by international criticism over allegations about its.
Swiss banks to examine Holocaust victims' accounts
By Uriel Masad, Jewish Telegraphic Agency
Tel Aviv -- Swiss banks are striving to resolve the issue of Holocaust victims' bank deposits. Top officials of major Swiss banks have agreed to appoint an independent arbitrator who will ensure that deposits are transferred to the depositors' rightful heirs, according to the Jerusalem Report magazine. The banks will reportedly issue an official announcement in the near future.
Media in Israel and elsewhere have reported that a great deal of money belonging to Holocaust victims is still lodged in Swiss bank accounts. So far, Swiss banks have refused to release the deposits to relatives of the deceased without proper documentation and accurate account numbers, much of which vanished during and after the war. Estimates of these accounts, deposited during World War II, range from tens of millions of dollars to nearly $7 billion. But the Swiss Bankers Association, the industry's leading organization, said the estimates are highly inflated.
No Deal Yet to Give Nazi Gold to Victims
Washington (Reuter) - The head of a U.S. government task force said Friday he hoped to persuade European nations to distribute some six tons of Nazi gold to Holocaust survivors, but there was no agreement to do so yet. "We're very pleased so far with the positive attitude that the British and French government have shown to try to deal with this contentious issue in ways that do.
Switzerland & Holocaust Assets -- First Web Page
Launched on June 24th, 1997, this new Web site is dedicated to become a one-stop resource page for the information available on the Internet related to the attitude of Switzerland and other countries during and after Second World War -- more specifically to the handling and recovering of the Holocaust Assets -- and its current coverage by the world media. It is the first independent Web site devoted to this topic. The site is edited by Bruno Giussani, a Swiss journalist (Geneva -- Switzerland) who is a frequent contributor to both Swiss and American newspapers ( The New York Times CyberTimes Columnist)
Resources on Nazi Gold / Holocaust Assets - Swiss Banks and World War II
Maintained by Lyonette Louis-Jacques, foreign and international law librarian and lecturer in the Law University of Chicago Law School. List of recent and older books published on the issue. Links to American, Swiss, British, German and French reports and newspapers related to the Nazi gold, Switzerland, the Swiss banks and the Trilateral Commission.
Swiss Release New WWII Account List
By Alexander G. Higgins, Associated Press Writer, October 29, 1997
Swiss banks released a new list of 14,000 dormant World War II-era accounts today in a sweeping attempt to give back the assets of Holocaust victims. For the latest listing, supervised by international investigators, 123 banks -- including small savings institutions -- searched their records to find even small bank accounts.
Senator Alfonse D'Amato
Homepage of the New York Republican Senator and President of the senatorial Banking committee, very active on the issue of the Jewish assets in the Swiss banks.
D'Amato Meets With Swiss
By Newsradio 88 Staff Senator Alfonse D'Amato meets with Ambassador Thomas Borer, head of the Swiss Task Force on the Assets of Nazi Victims this afternoon to follow up on this question he posed earlier today, "How would [the Swiss] know where the gold from the Nazis came from, whether it was melted down?" The vice president of the central Swiss bank, said the bank profited by an estimated.
Journal de Genève
Information and reflection about Switzerland and the Swiss banks during World War II. Articles about Senator D'Amato and other personalities, the Swiss neutrality, the role of Portugal.
EIZENSTAT TESTIFIES ON NAZI GOLD BEFORE SENATE COMMITTE...
Around $400 million of this looted gold went to Switzerland, either to the Swiss National Bank's own account or the account of other countries at the Swiss National Bank. Despite repeated Swiss protestations after the War that they had never received any looted Nazi gold, this report is incontrovertible... (05/15/97)
Report vindicates efforts to expose Swiss war role
Alfonse M. D'Amato released document after document, hammering away at what they called the facade of Swiss neutrality during World War II. In releasing a U.S. government study of looted Nazi assets, Commerce Undersecretary Stuart E. Eizenstat lauded ``the courageous efforts'' of Edgar Bronfman and Israel Singer of the World Jewish Congress (WJC), of Sen. D'Amato
Swiss kept billions in looted Nazi gold
Under Secretary of Commerce Stuart Eizenstat, in a statement issued by the Embassy of Switzerland in Washington, said the sources' comments reported earlier Friday by Reuters were inaccurate. Eizenstat did not specify what the inaccuracies were but he cautioned that in the coming days interested parties would attempt to put their own slant on the report.
Distribution of so-called monetary gold looted by the Nazis
The Tripartite Commission for the Restitution of Monetary Gold, established in September 1946 by the United States, Britain and France, was charged with the distribution of so-called monetary gold looted by the Nazis from the central banks of those European countries they had overrun.
IINS News Service
Undersecretary of State Stuart Eizenstat, in releasing the US report in May, said the use of US banks was one of the "unresolved issues" he was exploring. EU Trying To Arrange Levy-Arafat Meeting In Brussels.
July 30, 1997 Switzerland: Nazi gold allegations hit goodwill Claims surrounding Nazi gold and Jewish assets have divided politics and opinion in Switzerland for more than one year. The latest catalyst to the debate is the recently published Eizenstat report on Nazi gold dealings, which caused resentment at "Swiss- bashing" amongst many Swiss, including some top politicians.
Dossier : Switzerland and Jewish Funds -- Washington Quietly Makes Its...
The Allies are in fact often accused of having closed their eyes to these transfers of funds in order to avoid a possible German invasion of Switzerland. The investigation, placed under the direction of the Under-Secretary of State for International Commerce, Stuart Eizenstat, is being headed by an interdepartmental commission made up of administration officials and historians.
Access to the report published by 11 Federal agencies under the direction of Commerce Sub-Secretary Stuart Eizenstat. You can find here too the finding aids of the National Archives for the documents related to this issue. ( Adobe Acrobat PDF format )
Eizenstat: Nazis traded Holocaust victims' gold
WASHINGTON (May 8) - The gold jewelry and dental fillings of concentration camp victims were mixed with the bank gold plundered by the Nazis, then resmelted and traded abroad. But Eizenstat called for a "substantial portion" of the $70 million in so-called residual gold to be used for the victims of Nazi atrocities.
Yanks: Swiss aided Nazis (Philadelphia Daily News)
Instead, Eizenstat said U.S. leaders were more worried about the coming Cold War with the Soviet Union and about rebuilding war-ravaged West Germany than fighting a diplomatic battle for restitution. But he said the American study lacked ``a measured recognition'' of Switzerland's extremely difficult position as a tiny country encircled and threatened by the Nazis and fascists.
Eizenstat: Nazis traded Holocaust victims' gold
The victims were not only victims of the Holocaust, Eizenstat said at a State Department briefing, "but of the sad combination of indifference on the part of neutrals and inaction on the part of the Allies." While virtually all neutrals and the Allies came in for some criticism in the Eizenstat report, it was fairly mild, highly qualified and shy of any major discovery.
Does Money Burn Swiss Fingers ?
Good site maintained by the Swiss daily
Britain in the USA
Information from the British Archives on the Nazi gold Published May 6th 1997 by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office assembling information from the British archives on the origins and fate of gold recovered by the Allies after the Second World War.
Simon Wiesenthal Center
has a searchable list of 1600 accounts of the Swiss Bank Corporation frozen by the U.S. government during the war.
Virtual Jerusalem: Policy Dispatch.
Information and latest news about the Jewish assets in the Swiss banks and the Nazi gold transferred to Switzerland.
Jewish Bulletin of Northern California
Basic information about the Jewish accounts in the Swiss banks. Searchable ( keyword Swiss ).
World Jewish Congress
( World Jewish Congress Homepage)
( Mario 's Page )
A chronology starting at the 1946 Washington agreement between the Trilateral and Switzerland, a list of the main personalities involved in this issue, the documentaries produced by the Swiss TV and some related links.
A good coverage and useful information on the legal aspect of the issue. Searchable ( keyword: "Swiss banks" ). An Executive Committee New York, comprised of attorneys on behalf of Holocaust victims and their heirs against the Union Bank of Switzerland and other Swiss banks.
Home page of a very active Swiss TV correspondent Yves Magat in Washington. Information mostly in a Swiss perspective. This page is an incredible source of links to sites (mostly Swiss) covering the news and archives related to Nazi Gold but has also some of the documents from the U.S. National Archives involving Switzerland, the Swiss Banks and World War II.
Most of the articles published in the Geneva Newspaper
Tribune de Genève
including the controversial interview of Swiss President Jean-Pascal Delamuraz (1996).
Swiss Search: "Nazi Gold"
Embassy of Switzerland
Homepage of the Swiss embassy in Washington. The site contains an update of the issue with news from Switzerland and the U.S. and various documents from the Swiss archives.
Swiss Task Force
Searchable homepage with latest news and background of the dormant account issue. by the (Agency of the Swiss government).
|Vatican and Nazi Gold|
Dormant Accounts - Homepage
This web site contains a List of Dormant Accounts opened by non-Swiss individuals prior to the end of World War II ( May 9, 1945), and all the information needed to file a claim to one of these accounts. If, after reviewing the materials at this site, you have any Questions concerning the dormant accounts, please contact one of the Ernst & Young Contact Offices. This site has Recent Press Releases as weel as Dormant Accounts - Claim Form and will be updated from time to time with additional information.
Swiss List Eyed with Suspicion
Swiss Banks Reveal More Unclaimed Funds
Jewish Groups Angry as Nazi Names Found on Swiss Accounts
Los Angeles Times
Banks Admit Shame Over Holocaust Accounts
Articles about Nazi Gold Controversy|
Last Updated: 05/13/97 by Excite NewsTracker
Moral neutrality is immoral (San Francisco Examiner)
EXAMINER EDITORIAL WRITER looted gold shows that staying in business was as compelling as survival THE DISPIRITING story of Swiss dealing in looted gold from Nazi Germany demonstrates the limits of neutrality as an honorable policy in the face of overwhelming evil. Virtually surrounded by Axis powers when World War II broke out, Switzerland maintained its traditional neutrality as the best hope...
International bank says it received plundered Nazi gold (Fox News)
BASEL, Switzerland (AP) -- A key international bank disclosed Monday that some of 15 tons of gold it received from Nazi Germany during World War II had been plundered from foreign banks and stamped with phony prewar dates. Known as the central banker's central bank, it has acted as the main international clearing house for bank transactions since 1930 and thus handled much of the gold that moved...
Neutrality cannot hide Swiss now (Philadelphia Inquirer)
It has been well-known since the war that Swiss boats and trains, factories and financiers were central to the German war effort. The Swiss government will hold a referendum regarding the endowment of a national account for the same purpose.
Duty in Switzerland . . . (Washington Post)
It centers on Switzerland but touches a dozen other European countries similarly accustomed to thinking of themselves as repositories of the West's higher values. The chapter is about "Nazi gold," meaning the huge government and individual assets that Hitler Germany looted and sent to Switzerland and elsewhere in order to prosecute its mad war.
Swiss Bankers Sustained Nazis, U.S. Report Says (Washington Post)
News From the 50 States Find news, reference materials and Internet resources for every state. National Breaking News: 24-hour-a-day updates in the Today's Top News section.
Jewish leader says German banks must probe Nazi past
The Jewish Post of New York - Jewish Web Network News
July 21, 1997 The Bank of Canada has begun a formal investigation into allegations that thousands of kilograms of Nazi gold was laundered through its vaults during World War II, the governor of the bank has confirmed. It was revealed last week and again Tuesday in newly declassified documents obtained by the World Jewish Congress, that more than 6,000 kilograms (13,200 pounds) of Nazi gold.
Bank of Canada helped launder tonnes of gold
Today (970728) the Bank of Canada admitted it found records suggesting it helped launder tonnes of gold from European accounts. Was Canada a willing accomplice in laundering Nazi gold, gold originally stolen from condemned Jews and then used to finance Hitler's atrocities.
Montreal Gazette, 970729, A1 / FRONT
A report released yesterday by the Bank of Canada confirms that ownership of six tonnes of Swiss gold was transferred to an account held by the central bank of Portugal, transactions cited in newly declassified U.S. Secret Service documents. Yesterday's report confirms that in April and May of 1942, ownership of four tonnes of gold held by the Swiss in its Bank of Canada account was.
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